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详解Android获取设备唯一ID的几种方式

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先来看看几种比较单一的方式:

IMEI

方式:TelephonyManager.getDeviceId():

问题

  1. 范围:只能支持拥有通话功能的设备,对于平板不可以。
  2. 持久性:返厂,数据擦除的时候不彻底,保留了原来的标识。
  3. 权限:需要权限:Android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE
  4. bug: 有些厂家的实现有bug,返回一些不可用的数据

 Mac地址

ACCESS_WIFI_STATE权限

有些设备没有WiFi,或者蓝牙,就不可以,如果WiFi没有打开,硬件也不会返回Mac地址,不建议使用

ANDROID_ID
2.2(Froyo,8)版本系统会不可信,来自主要生产厂商的主流手机,至少有一个普遍发现的bug,这些有问题的手机相同的ANDROID_ID: 9774d56d682e549c

但是如果返厂的手机,或者被root的手机,可能会变

Serial Number

从Android 2.3 (“Gingerbread”)开始可用,可以通过android.os.Build.SERIAL获取,对于没有通话功能的设备,它会返回一个唯一的device ID,

以下几个是stackoverflow上评论较多的几个,没贴完,还有其他,综合的,用到以上的部分方式:

地址:http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2785485/is-there-a-unique-android-device-id

有兴趣的朋友可以再仔细看看

支持率比较高的(支持票数157):androidID --> 剔除2.2版本(API 8)中有问题的手机,使用UUID替代

 import android.content.Context; import android.content.SharedPreferences; import android.provider.Settings.Secure; import android.telephony.TelephonyManager; import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException; import java.util.UUID; public class DeviceUuidFactory { protected static final String PREFS_FILE = "device_id.xml"; protected static final String PREFS_DEVICE_ID = "device_id"; protected static volatile UUID uuid; public DeviceUuidFactory(Context context) { if (uuid == null) { synchronized (DeviceUuidFactory.class) { if (uuid == null) { final SharedPreferences prefs = context .getSharedPreferences(PREFS_FILE, 0); final String id = prefs.getString(PREFS_DEVICE_ID, null); if (id != null) { // Use the ids previously computed and stored in the // prefs file uuid = UUID.fromString(id); } else { final String androidId = Secure.getString( context.getContentResolver(), Secure.ANDROID_ID); // Use the Android ID unless it's broken, in which case // fallback on deviceId, // unless it's not available, then fallback on a random // number which we store to a prefs file try { if (!"9774d56d682e549c".equals(androidId)) { uuid = UUID.nameUUIDFromBytes(androidId .getBytes("utf8")); } else { final String deviceId = ((TelephonyManager) context.getSystemService( Context.TELEPHONY_SERVICE) .getDeviceId(); uuid = deviceId != null ? UUID .nameUUIDFromBytes(deviceId .getBytes("utf8")) : UUID .randomUUID(); } } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) { throw new RuntimeException(e); } // Write the value out to the prefs file prefs.edit() .putString(PREFS_DEVICE_ID, uuid.toString()) .commit(); } } } } } /** * Returns a unique UUID for the current android device. As with all UUIDs, * this unique ID is "very highly likely" to be unique across all Android * devices. Much more so than ANDROID_ID is. * * The UUID is generated by using ANDROID_ID as the base key if appropriate, * falling back on TelephonyManager.getDeviceID() if ANDROID_ID is known to * be incorrect, and finally falling back on a random UUID that's persisted * to SharedPreferences if getDeviceID() does not return a usable value. * * In some rare circumstances, this ID may change. In particular, if the * device is factory reset a new device ID may be generated. In addition, if * a user upgrades their phone from certain buggy implementations of Android * 2.2 to a newer, non-buggy version of Android, the device ID may change. * Or, if a user uninstalls your app on a device that has neither a proper * Android ID nor a Device ID, this ID may change on reinstallation. * * Note that if the code falls back on using TelephonyManager.getDeviceId(), * the resulting ID will NOT change after a factory reset. Something to be * aware of. * * Works around a bug in Android 2.2 for many devices when using ANDROID_ID * directly. * * @see http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=10603 * * @return a UUID that may be used to uniquely identify your device for most * purposes. */ public UUID getDeviceUuid() { return uuid; } } 

根据版本进行判断的方式:Serial序列号-->UUID (支持数31)

通过Serial 即可,在覆盖率上,你已经成功的获得了98.4%的用户,剩下的1.6%的用户系统是在9 以下的。

通过AndroidID获取,前面已经说过,在8上,有些商家的手机会有一些bug,返回相同的AndroidID,如果Serial和AndroidID都不行

 /** * Return pseudo unique ID * @return ID */ public static String getUniquePsuedoID() { // If all else fails, if the user does have lower than API 9 (lower // than Gingerbread), has reset their phone or 'Secure.ANDROID_ID' // returns 'null', then simply the ID returned will be solely based // off their Android device information. This is where the collisions // can happen. // Thanks http://www.pocketmagic.net/?p=1662! // Try not to use DISPLAY, HOST or ID - these items could change. // If there are collisions, there will be overlapping data String m_szDevIDShort = "35" + (Build.BOARD.length() % 10) + (Build.BRAND.length() % 10) + (Build.CPU_ABI.length() % 10) + (Build.DEVICE.length() % 10) + (Build.MANUFACTURER.length() % 10) + (Build.MODEL.length() % 10) + (Build.PRODUCT.length() % 10); // Thanks to @Roman SL! // http://stackoverflow.com/a/4789483/950427 // Only devices with API >= 9 have android.os.Build.SERIAL // http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html#SERIAL // If a user upgrades software or roots their phone, there will be a duplicate entry String serial = null; try { serial = android.os.Build.class.getField("SERIAL").get(null).toString(); // Go ahead and return the serial for api => 9 return new UUID(m_szDevIDShort.hashCode(), serial.hashCode()).toString(); } catch (Exception e) { // String needs to be initialized serial = "serial"; // some value } // Thanks @Joe! // http://stackoverflow.com/a/2853253/950427 // Finally, combine the values we have found by using the UUID class to create a unique identifier return new UUID(m_szDevIDShort.hashCode(), serial.hashCode()).toString(); } 

不用READ_PHONE_STATE权限直接获取ROM信息的方式:(支持率较低 16)

 String m_szDevIDShort = "35" + //we make this look like a valid IMEI Build.BOARD.length()%10+ Build.BRAND.length()%10 + Build.CPU_ABI.length()%10 + Build.DEVICE.length()%10 + Build.DISPLAY.length()%10 + Build.HOST.length()%10 + Build.ID.length()%10 + Build.MANUFACTURER.length()%10 + Build.MODEL.length()%10 + Build.PRODUCT.length()%10 + Build.TAGS.length()%10 + Build.TYPE.length()%10 + Build.USER.length()%10 ; //13 digits 

最后贴上自己在项目中用的:

 public static String getDeviceId(Context context) { String deviceId = ""; if (deviceId != null && !"".equals(deviceId)) { return deviceId; } if (deviceId == null || "".equals(deviceId)) { try { deviceId = getLocalMac(context).replace(":", ""); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } if (deviceId == null || "".equals(deviceId)) { try { deviceId = getAndroidId(context); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } if (deviceId == null || "".equals(deviceId)) { if (deviceId == null || "".equals(deviceId)) { UUID uuid = UUID.randomUUID(); deviceId = uuid.toString().replace("-", ""); writeDeviceID(deviceId); } } return deviceId; } 
 // IMEI码 private static String getIMIEStatus(Context context) { TelephonyManager tm = (TelephonyManager) context .getSystemService(Context.TELEPHONY_SERVICE); String deviceId = tm.getDeviceId(); return deviceId; } // Mac地址 private static String getLocalMac(Context context) { WifiManager wifi = (WifiManager) context .getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE); WifiInfo info = wifi.getConnectionInfo(); return info.getMacAddress(); } // Android Id private static String getAndroidId(Context context) { String androidId = Settings.Secure.getString( context.getContentResolver(), Settings.Secure.ANDROID_ID); return androidId; } public static void saveDeviceID(String str) { try { FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file); Writer out = new OutputStreamWriter(fos, "UTF-8"); out.write(str); out.close(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } public static String readDeviceID() { StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(); try { FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file); InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(fis, "UTF-8"); Reader in = new BufferedReader(isr); int i; while ((i = in.read()) > -1) { buffer.append((char) i); } in.close(); return buffer.toString(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); return null; } } 

对于获取设备唯一ID并没有绝对的方案,这一点在android的官方博客中也提到了,不过以上几种方案,应该可以满足平时的需求,大家可以选择其中自己认为比较好的,用于自己的项目中。

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持。

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